Cleaning is essential to the maintenance and repair work of rolling stock. Whether the cleaning is thorough is directly related to the condition and quality of the inspection of parts and maintenance work, the safety of the goods loaded on the vehicle, and the hygienic need of the car’s appearance. Currently, railway cleaning work takes up a lot of workforces, and the labor intensity is also enormous. Therefore, the realization of mechanization and the use of advanced technology to improve the cleaning quality are urgent problems to be solved.
The interior of the bus is difficult to clean. Cleaning inside the car includes vacuuming and removing rubbish and dirt. The station generally supplies washing water. The vacuum cleaner in the passer-by car can be replaced with different suction heads for dry cleaning or wet cleaning of the floor, and the cleaned sewage and garbage are discharged into the garbage separator. Many countries have adopted this equipment. Some portable tools are also used when cleaning doors and windows, rolling carpets, etc.
The cleaning of the casings of diesel locomotives and vehicles is quite tricky. Many countries have adopted fixed and mobile cleaning equipment in recent years. It is more common to use truck chassis or directly on the car to convert it into a portable washing machine. The vehicle has an engine-driven brush, a heated medicine tank, and a clean water tank. When cleaning, spray the cleaning agent on the surface of the car body first and then rinse it with clean water. It can wash 200 to 250 vehicles per shift.
Mobile cleaning equipment requires less investment than stationary cleaning equipment. When the vehicle body does not move, all parts that need to be cleaned can be cleaned with portable cleaning equipment. Due to the limitation of the water source, it is often necessary to bring a certain amount of water and a cleaning agent. Therefore, compared with fixed equipment, the movable type is subject to certain restrictions regarding cleaning capacity and quality.
Fixed equipment is generally operated according to specific procedures. First, spray water to wet the car body, start the brush with a cleaning agent, and then rinse with clean water after brushing. The water and cleaning agent are hot and sprayed by the spray head. Many devices are reused with water recycling.
From the perspective of the cleaning work, the problems encountered by the cleaning equipment when washing the car body shell need to be further studied and solved, such as formulating a cleaning process and selecting a new cleaning agent. The outer skin of diesel locomotives is mostly oily dirt composed of fuel and lubricating oil. Manual removal with slurry decontamination powder is not very effective. To improve the ability and quality of cleaning equipment, synthetic detergent XC-2M is used instead, which is especially suitable for cleaning equipment and has a good effect.
For the steam washing tank, the main tasks to be completed are how to improve the steam washing capacity and cleaning quality, gradually realize mechanization, improve the circulating water system and save energy.
Due to poor water treatment in some tank washing stations, the cleaning quality is not ideal, the equipment is worn out, and the environment is polluted. Therefore, separating the steaming and washing systems is recommended, and the circulating water system and the oil pollution discharge system do not interfere. But from the experience of pilot units, this will reduce capacity, increase energy consumption, and increase investment.
At present, some tank washing stations have carried out equipment renovation, cleaning all tank cars in one place, and building large storage tanks at the same time, which not only improves the cleaning ability of the equipment, improves the quality of circulating water, but also recovers a large amount of oil. From the direct effect, the cleaning capacity is increased by 2 times, significantly improving the working conditions of washing and irrigating workers.
The actual comparison shows that the technical and economic indicators of the separate operation of steaming and washing are better. Be sure to treat the sewage well so that a lot of oil cannot be mixed into the water treatment system. Properly dispose of a large amount of residual oil left in the tanker, establishing a unique platform for processing. When there is a large amount of unloaded oil in the car, it is no longer a request to wash the tanker by sending it to the relevant department alone, reducing the burden of car washing.
The parts are removed from the grease by the action of the cleaning agent in the cleaning machine. Some use caustic soda, which has a strong ability to remove oil and scale, but it has a corrosive effect on people and equipment. Safety protection should be paid for in preparing solutions and equipment maintenance. After washing, parts need to be coated with anti-rust oil. Caustic soda is very corrosive to non-ferrous and light metal parts. The equipment using caustic soda includes two systems of chemicals and clean water. Such as pumps, storage tanks, and other equipment have complex and massive structures, and due to the addition of a process of applying anti-rust oil, the working time and energy consumption are increased.
The length of cleaning time and the quality of cleaning are determined mainly by the combination of cleaning components and cleaning agents. Therefore, according to the shape and dirt of the parts, the cleaning agent is reasonably selected, which can improve the cleaning efficiency. At the same time, it is necessary to correctly grasp the time of cleaning operations, such as asphalt grease and some difficult-to-remove dirt, the cleaning time generally needs to be extended twice, and it is best to clean such cleaning parts separately.
High-pressure cleaning is also an effective method to improve the cleaning ability, and the cleaning pressure is 1.8~4.0Mpa. The cleaning liquid is hot. The Design Office of the Vehicle Bureau and the Kyiv Process Design Office of the Factory Bureau jointly designed a high-pressure washer for cleaning the bogie, and the Design Office of the Maintenance Bureau designed a high-pressure washer for cleaning the wheelset. This equipment has a high-pressure pump and 2~3 nozzles with a diameter of 10~12mm. Through the movement of the workpiece and the nozzle, the cleaning is very uniform. The most significant advantage of high-pressure cleaning is that no cleaning agent is used so sewage treatment can be greatly simplified. However, the cleaning effect will greatly improve if an alkaline detergent is added.
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